Lab creating a cladogram answer key
What did T. Cladistics organizes living things by common ancestry and evolutionary relationships, enabling us to better understand life's present diversity and evolutionary history. Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.
Like other methods of classification, cladistics makes use of the observable features of organisms.
Cladogram Analysis Key
Cladistics also allows us to examine the ways in which features change within groups, and to observe patterns of origin and diversification over time. Unlike any other method of classification, cladistics is a powerful predictive tool, allowing us to propose hypotheses about the relationships between organisms.
CCC- Patterns - patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. This module presents a simplified version of the process used to generate cladistic analyses and demonstrates its predictive power. Typically dozens or even hundreds of features are examined before a cladogram is produced.
Although in this module only structural features are used, true cladistic analyses also use biochemical, genetic and even behavioral features. Students are required to write down all vocabulary words highlighted in module and their corresponding definitions. These vocabulary words will be revisited during lesson.
Depending on reading level of class you may need to model completion of Folder 1.Making a Cladogram 2020
Teacher should walk around and check for understanding through out module. In this section of lesson students explore the building and use of cladograms for the purpose of organizing living things based on evolutionary relationships. Data Table, Venn Diagram, Cladogram.
I explain this strategy, and ways to support students in using it, in my reflection. Clarify complex ideas presented in the text. Readers clarify ideas through a process of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Pausing to clarify ideas will increase your understanding of the ideas in the text.
I use a Carousel Feedback strategy to build students' communication skills, while expanding individual's understanding through group information sharing. In this exercise students are required to analyze data table, create a venn diagram, and finally build a cladogram for invertebrate species. Empty Layer. Home Professional Learning.June 04, Student Exploration: Disease Spread. Why do you think it is important to cover your mouth when you cough?
Why should you always wash your hands before you eat? Gizmo Warm-up. Some diseases, such as diabetes and most cancers, are not spread from one person to another. But other diseases, such as the flu and strep throat, can be spread. Look at the color key on the bottom right of the Gizmo. What is happening when a person changes color? Activity A:. Person-to-person transmission.
Get the Gizmo ready :. Question: What factors affect how quickly a pathogen spreads from person to person? Predict : Some pathogens are spread directly from one person to another.
This can happen when people come into direct contact or share items, such as drinking glasses. What do you think might affect how quickly a pathogen is spread from person to person? You will want the table tab open to answer question C. What does the purple person represent? What must happen for the disease to spread? Then repeat the experiment when there are 25 people and 35 people in the room.
Interpret : Study the data you collected. What trend do you see in the data, and how would you explain it?
Activity A continued on next page. Activity A continued from previous page. Experiment : Not all pathogens are equally infectious. Record the time it takes to infect five people. Then repeat the experiment with a medium and high probability of transmission.
Note: For the. Interpret : Study the data you collected in the table above.This interactive module shows how DNA sequences can be used to infer evolutionary relationships among organisms and represent them as phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic trees are diagrams of evolutionary relationships among organisms. As the organisms evolve and diverge, their DNA sequences accumulate mutations.
Summarize the process and goals of DNA sequence alignment. Interpret a simple phylogenetic tree. Details Estimated Time. Accessibility Level. This resource complies with accessibility standards in accordance with the final rule for Section of the National Rehabilitation Act. Educator Tips Hear how educators are using BioInteractive content in their teaching. Previous Slide Next Slide.
Explore Related Content. Other Related Resources Showing of. Ebola: Disease Detectives. Sorting Seashells. Sanger Sequencing. Shotgun Sequencing.June 04, Mark these points on the diagram at right.
Gizmo Warm-up. Watch the orbit over time. Does the orbit ever change, or is it stable? How does this affect the shape of the orbit? Activity A:. Shape of orbits. Get the Gizmo ready :. Question: How do we describe the shape of an orbit? The resulting vectors should look like the vectors in the image at right. Vectors do not have to be exact. Sketch the resulting orbit on the grid. If you picked any point on the ellipse, the sum of the distances to the foci is constant.
For example, in the ellipse at left:. The center is represented by a red dot, and the foci are shown by two blue dots. What do you notice about the position of the Sun? Experiment : Try several other combinations of initial position and velocity. What do you notice about the orbits.
Activity A continued on next page. Activity A continued from previous page. Observe : Use the Gizmo to create an orbit that is nearly circular. Then create an orbit that is flattened. Observe the foci in each ellipse. What do you notice about the spacing of the foci when the ellipse is very round? What do you notice about the spacing of the foci when the ellipse is very flat?This is often the sixth in the series of articles about guidelines on how to conduct a survey if it is actually required for an analytical report.
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I wish you good luck in choosing the means, and hope that it helps you reach prosperity! Practice Exam: AWS certified solutions architect associate. Recent Articles. Rosemary Snyder 0. Trending Now. Lehigh Final Exam Schedule Exam.Cladistics — A method of classifying organisms into groups of species called clades.
Clade — A group consisting of an ancestral organism and all of its evolutionary descendants. Cladograms — Tree diagrams where each branch point represents the splitting of two new groups from a common ancestor. They show evolutionary relationships within groups! Root — The initial ancestor common to all organisms within the cladogram incoming line shows it originates from a larger clade. Nodes — Each node corresponds to a common ancestor that speciated to give rise to two or more daughter taxa.
Outgroup — The most distantly related species in the cladogram. Functions as a point of comparison. Cladograms can be constructed based on either a comparison of morphological structural features or molecular evidence.
Historically, structural features were used to construct cladogramsbut molecular evidence is now more commonly used Typically, we can look at percent similarities among DNA sequences — more they share the closer they are!
This is an excellent resource that allows us to visualize the concept of cladistics and will connect strongly to unit two! Complete Virtual Lab walk through assignment. Evolution Lab — Answer Key Mission 1. Practice cladisitics worksheet Not for marks pages — Cladisitic Practice Key!
I will not ask you about definitions such as amniotes, heterotrophs, autotrophs, etc. September 17, Unit Cladistics. Phylogeny — The history of the evolution of a species or group. Cladistics — A method of classifying organisms into groups of species called clades Clade — A group consisting of an ancestral organism and all of its evolutionary descendants Members of a clade will possess common characteristics as a result of their shared evolutionary lineage Cladograms — Tree diagrams where each branch point represents the splitting of two new groups from a common ancestor.
Each branch point node represents a speciation event by which distinct species are formed Cladograms show the probable sequence of divergence and hence demonstrate the evolutionary history phylogeny of a clade.
Generally not much, often used interchangeably. A phylogenetic tree can show a much broader comparison, for example consisting of all life on Earth with a common ancestor. A cladogram typically focusing in a single ancestor and all of the divergences from that ancestor Cladogram Features: Root — The initial ancestor common to all organisms within the cladogram incoming line shows it originates from a larger clade Nodes — Each node corresponds to a common ancestor that speciated to give rise to two or more daughter taxa Outgroup — The most distantly related species in the cladogram.
Example: Constructing our own cladograms: Cladograms can be constructed based on either a comparison of morphological structural features or molecular evidence. Cladogram constructed using percent DNA.
Posts by shaun pletsch. Comments by shaun pletsch. Comments are closed. Spam prevention powered by Akismet.Nearly every biology student has heard of cladistics and cladograms, however, cladograms can be difficult to construct. This instructable will show you step by step how to make one, and how to avoid confusing derived traits with ancestral ones. Having the skills to construct a cladogram will help your understanding of evolutionary relationships.
Pick four to six organisms to be in your cladogram. Make sure that they are within the same order or family. The exception to this could be the organism in the outgroup, as the outgroup is meant to be used as a point of comparison against the other organisms.
Constructing a cladogram of organisms answer key
What do all of the organisms you chose have in common? The purpose of the ancestral characteristic is to link the animal in the outgroup to the other animals. It also serves as a point of comparison between the them. For example, if you chose a dog, a cat, a bear, and a rabbit, your ancestral trait, the trait they all share, could possibly be hair, or warm-bloodedness endothermy. What makes your organisms different from each other? Think of traits that are physical or physiological in nature that are unique to that order or family of organisms.
In our example, we could use consumption of meat to separate our bear, dog, and cat from our rabbit. Doing this makes the rabbit our outgroup. What makes the organisms in your ingroup different from each other?
Now that we have included the bear, dog, and cat in our ingroup, we can begin choosing derived characters to separate them. Let's separate the bear and dog from the cat by using enhanced sense of smell as a derived characteristic. Now that we have separated the dog and bear from the cat, it is time to separate them from each other. What characteristic of bears is unique to them and is not found in the dog, cat, or rabbit? In our example, hibernation would be a derived characteristic unique to bears.
By this point, you should have derived characteristics for each animal in your ingroup such that you could make a sort of list of them, in order from ancestral to most derived.
In this list, each derived characteristic chosen should separate the organisms that share the character from those that do not. In our example, the ancestral characteristic of either fur or endothermy groups our rabbit, bear, cat, and dog together; but the derived character of meat consumption separates our cat, dog, and bear from the rabbit, the derived character of reliance on sense of smell separates the cat from the dog and bear, and the derived character of hibernation separates our bear from our dog.
This makes the rabbit the most "ancestral" and the bear the most "derived". Cladograms typically have the format shown above, a tree-like pattern. Place the organism in the outgroup at the first perpendicular line at the left as shown.
Place the least derived organism in the ingroup the second organism in the list you made in step five at the line next to the outgroup as shown.